In the humid air, dust has formed scale, dust should use the wet cloth cleaning, remove dirt soft a diagonal, in the gap can be used to sharpen, use a damp cloth wipe, but on the surface, fade should not use wet cloth cleaning appliances. If the dust is not easy to wipe clean, can be stained with alcohol or ether of cotton wipe, or cleaning.
The instrument will be covered with greasy, glue, perspiration and other dirt in use in storage, accidentally will produce rust, mildew, will have a very bad influence on the life of the instrument, the performance of dirt. The purpose of cleaning is to remove dirt from the instrument. Usually, there are two ways to clean instruments, one is mechanical cleaning, that is, shovel, scrape, brush and so on. The two is chemical cleaning method, that is, cleaning with various chemical decontamination solvents. The specific cleaning method depends on the condition of the dirt attached to the surface and the nature of the dirt. The following are the cleaning methods of several common instruments and different material parts.
1. glassware cleaning
There are generally two kinds of dirt on glass containers. One is cleaned by water. The other is to use detergent or special detergent to clean it. In the experiment, no matter what kind of dirt attached to the glassware, the used vessels should be cleaned immediately.
Glassware, which is filled with substances such as sugar, salt, starch, mud sand, alcohol and other substances, can be washed with water to achieve the purpose of cleaning. It should be noted that if the dirt is hard to be attached, the vessel can be soaked in the water for a period of time, and then brush the edge with the brush until it is washed.
The glassware is contaminated with oil or oil, which can be cleaned with detergent, detergent powder, detergent and other detergent. Wash with brush when cleaning, and use this detergent to clean glassware with oil. After cleaning the glassware, the glassware can also be washed with clean water.
Organic solvents, such as gasoline and benzene, should be used to clean glassware with tar, bitumen or other polymer organic compounds. If it is difficult to wash, it is possible to immerse glassware in alkaline detergent for a period of time, then wash it with sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide or sodium phosphate, which is more than 5%, and even heat it.
In chemical reactions, there are often metal, oxide, acid, alkali and other dirt on the wall of glassware. Cleaning, should be based on the characteristics of dirt, use strong acid, strong alkali cleaning or use neutralization chemical reaction method to remove scale, and then rinse with water. When using acid and alkali cleaning, special attention should be paid to safety. Operators should wear rubber gloves protective glasses. When using them, tweezers and clamps should be used.
In addition, wash the glassware, and finally use the towel to dry the attached water.
2. cleaning of optical glass
Optical glass is used for lenses, lenses, prisms, slides and so on. It is easy to stain oil and water, wet dirt and fingerprints in manufacturing and application, and affect the imaging and transmittance. For cleaning optical glass, different cleaning agents should be selected according to the characteristics and different structures of dirt. Different cleaning tools and different cleaning methods should be used.
Cleaning and coating the lens with antireflection film, such as camera, slide projector and microscope, can be cleaned by about 20% alcohol and 80% ether. When cleaning application soft brush or cotton with a small amount of cleaning agent, from the lens center outward circular motion. Do not put this kind of lens soaked in cleaning agent cleaning; cleaning the lens shall not force wipe, otherwise it will scratch the antireflection film, lens damage.
The method of cleaning prism and plane mirror can be carried out according to the method of cleaning the lens.
Mildew on the surface of optical glass is a common phenomenon. When the optical glass mildew, light scattering occurs on the surface of the image blur, which will make the instrument useless. The reason is the optical glass mildew because of its surface with microbial spores in suitable temperature and humidity, and the required "nutrients", will grow rapidly, forming mould. Do Fangmei decontamination is particularly important for optical glass, once generated Mildew should immediately wash.
Eliminate mildew, cleaning agent for cleaning mold can be 0.1 to 0.5% ethyl hydrogen containing two chlorosilane and ethanol preparation, wet weather is right by adding a small amount of ether, propylene oxide, ammonia or dilute cleaning etc..
The above cleaning agent can also wash grease mist, water wet fog and oil water mixed fog on the optical glass, and the cleaning method is similar to the method of cleaning the lens.
3. cleaning of rubber parts
The teaching instrument made of rubber parts, rubber as a kind of organic polymer, in with greasy or organic solvent after aging, the parts of deformation, weak sticky; drive made of rubber belt, if stained with oil will decrease the friction coefficient, slipping phenomenon.
The cleaning agent can be used as a cleaning agent, such as alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, etc., and the organic solvent can not be used as a cleaning agent. When cleaning, first with a cotton swab or cloth adhesive cleaning agent for cleaning, cleaning agent can be natural volatile net. It should be made, carbon tetrachloride is toxic and harmful to the human body. It should be carried out under good ventilation and safety when cleaning.
4. cleaning of plastic parts
There are many kinds of plastics, including polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, nylon, organic glass and so on. Plastic parts are generally sensitive to organic solvents. When cleaning dirt, we can't use organic solvents such as gasoline, toluene and acetone as cleaning agents. Cleaning the plastic parts with water, soapy water or detergent powder is suitable for cleaning.
5. iron and steel parts rust removal
Iron and steel parts are easy to rust. In order to prevent rust, iron and steel parts in teaching instrument products are often coated with oil and paint, but even so, rust often happens. The corrosion of steel parts should be removed by different methods based on the degree of corrosion and the characteristics of parts.
For larger size, degree of precision is not high or by mechanical method is not easy to rust removing steel components, can use chemical methods such as rust, with a concentration of 2 to 25% for the phosphate immersion rust components, soaking when heated to 40 to 80 DEG C suitable for corrosion in addition to the net, the surface will form a layer of protective film, and then remove the components soaked in the concentration of 0.5 ~ 2% phosphoric acid solution in about an hour, and finally remove the drying.
If this kind of chemical method is used in the laboratory to remove rust, it will damage the parts, especially the precision parts. Therefore, in the laboratory, not rust by chemical method, and should adopt mechanical descaling method, namely the first part of the rust layer block removed with a shovel, tick, scraping etc., use sandpaper grinding and polishing, and finally coated with protective layer.
For parts made of nonferrous metals and their alloy materials, the method of removing rust can be carried out according to the method of removing rust from steel parts. But we should pay attention to two points, first, by means of chemical derusting, should according to the preparation and use of chemical herbicides of different chemical components characteristics of materials; second, remove a non-ferrous metal and alloy parts corrosion, commonly used mechanical derusting method is appropriate.